The FAA provide standards for checkrides that are used by a Designated Pilot Examiner (DPE) to evaluate examinees. The older PTS (Practical Test Standards) are being replaced by the newer ACS (Airmen Certification Standards). At the time of this writing, the links below are for the current standards for each test. Check the FAA websites to confirm these links are up to date.
FAA Practical Test Standards (PTS)
FAA Airman Certification Standards (ACS)